By 2–3 months, cubs can follow their mother outside the den.  The prehistoric Finns, Siberian peoples and more recently Koreans considered the bear as the spirit of their forefathers.  Prehistoric North and South American short-faced bears were the largest species known to have lived. The relationships of the other species are not very well resolved, though the polar bear and the brown bear form a close grouping. Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their meat and fur; they have been used for bear-baiting and other forms of entertainment, such as being made to dance. , Brown and American black bears are generally diurnal, meaning that they are active for the most part during the day, though they may forage substantially by night. Although not genetically isolated from other bears, evidence of 20,000 year old polar bear jaws shows a distinct shift in tooth shape and size, …  Ursa Major has been associated with a bear for as much as 13,000 years since Paleolithic times, in the widespread Cosmic Hunt myths. This form is conventionally said to be related to a Proto-Indo-European word for "brown", so that "bear" would mean "the brown one". The black bear survives many environmental changes such as …  In ancient Greece, the archaic cult of Artemis in bear form survived into Classical times at Brauron, where young Athenian girls passed an initiation right as arktai "she bears". The only times bears are encountered in groups are mothers with young or occasional seasonal bounties of rich food (such as salmon runs). THE EVOLUTION OF BEAR SPECIES Where did the bear really come from? Recent findings suggest that polar bears evolved from a common ancestor of the brown bear between 350,000-6 million. The polar bears, which evolved from brown bears, originated some 150,000 years ago, according to genetic analyses of a polar bear fossil. Older pre-ice-age brown bears, dating to between 43,000 and 38,000 years ago, had a different genetic signature matching that of modern bears from eastern Europe. Schaub was also the first woman from Leelanau County to practice law in Michigan. , Bears are prolific scavengers and kleptoparasites, stealing food caches from rodents, and carcasses from other predators.  Males kill young to bring the female into estrus. , The New World short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) differentiated from Ursinae following a dispersal event into North America during the mid-Miocene (about 13 Mya). Modern brown bears evolved from U. minimus via Ursus etruscus, which itself is ancestral to the extinct Pleistocene cave bear. The coat consists of long guard hairs, which form a protective shaggy covering, and short dense hairs which form an insulating layer trapping air close to the skin. ", "Elizabethan Playhouses and Bear Baiting Arenas Given Protection", "Trichinellosis Associated with Bear Meat", "Ptolemy's Almagest First printed edition, 1515", "The cosmic hunt: variants of a Siberian – North-American myth", "A Point of View: The grownups with teddy bears", "What the West thinks about Russia is not necessarily true", "Forest Fire Prevention – Smokey Bear (1944–Present)", "Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding", The Bears Project – Information, reports and images of European brown bears and other living species, The Bear Book and Curriculum Guide – a compilation of stories about all eight species of bears worldwide, including STEM lessons rooted in bear research, ecology, and conservation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bear&oldid=998680083, Taxa named by Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Old English (ca. Courtship may be brief, although in some Asian species, courting pairs may engage in wrestling, hugging, mock fighting and vocalizing.  The structure of the larynx of bears appears to be the most basal of the caniforms.  The panda's diet is over 99% bamboo, of 30 different species.  The Old English name Beowulf is a kenning, "bee-wolf", for bear, in turn meaning a brave warrior.  For example, Asiatic black bears in Taiwan consume large numbers of acorns when these are most common, and switch to ungulates at other times of the year. Infanticide, where an adult male kills the cubs of another, has been recorded in polar bears, brown bears and American black bears but not in other species. , Bears produce a number of vocal and non-vocal sounds. , The skulls of bears are massive, providing anchorage for the powerful masseter and temporal jaw muscles. Photograph: Paul Souders/Corbis, Dr Ceiridwen Edwards, from Oxford University, The research is published in the journal Current Biology.  In many Native American cultures, the bear is a symbol of rebirth because of its hibernation and re-emergence. In 1840 there were 7 Bears families living in New York. years ago. Polar bears have hollow, translucent guard hairs which gain heat from the sun and conduct it to the dark-colored skin below. The earliest Tremarctinae is Plionarctos and was … , Bear taxon names such as Arctoidea and Helarctos come from the ancient Greek ἄρκτος (arktos), meaning bear, as do the names "arctic" and "antarctic", via the name of the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern sky. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut. [b] The nearby star Arcturus means "guardian of the bear", as if it were watching the two constellations. The shaggy coat helps maintain body heat during winter hibernation and is shed in the spring leaving a shorter summer coat. The carnivore ancestor Dormaalocyon latouri, roamed Europe 56 million years ago. Warning sounds include jaw-clicking and lip-popping, while teeth-chatters, bellows, growls, roars and pulsing sounds are made in aggressive encounters. , Bears are parasitized by eighty species of parasites, including single-celled protozoans and gastro-intestinal worms, and nematodes and flukes in their heart, liver, lungs and bloodstream. Its strong jaws are adapted for crushing the tough stems of these plants, though they prefer to eat the more nutritious leaves. They are unique among carnivorans in not having touch-sensitive whiskers on the muzzle; however, they have an excellent sense of smell, better than that of the dog, or possibly any other mammal.  Fights between males can occur and older individuals may have extensive scarring, which suggests that maintaining dominance can be intense. This animal is known to have existed sometime during the late Oligocene period, some 27 million years ago. Polar and brown bears are hugely different in terms of body size, skin and coat colour, fur type, tooth structure and many other physical features. They distribute their weight toward the hind feet, which makes them look lumbering when they walk. Polar bears, the world's largest carnivores, are expert swimmers which prey on seals, while forest-living brown bears climb and have a varied omnivorous diet. A bear very similar to a panda lived in what’s now Hungary 10 million years ago. , Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from Latin Ursus/Ursa, he-bear/she-bear. The Etruscan bear was much smaller than today's grizzly. At certain times of the year, these insects can make up 90% of their diets. , Most mammals have agouti hair, with each individual hair shaft having bands of color corresponding to two different types of melanin pigment. Whatever its origins, the dog was the first animal to be domesticated by early humans. The brown bear can live an average of 25 years. 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