https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/video/incrementalism https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/incrementalism], [See videos on deontology https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/deontology and utilitarianism. The few examples of rationalizations in COSO describe fraud committed by a “lone wolf.” Instead of limiting searches to such cases, think like the WorldCom crooks: consider the incentives and policies that could encourage employees to follow somebody like Scott Sullivan.  Scot Spits, Misrepresenting Disability on a Par with Doping: Paralympics, Australia, Sydney Morning Herald, July 31, 2019, at https://www.smh.com.au/sport/misrepresenting-disability-on-a-par-with-doping-paralympics-australia-20190731-p52cm2.html. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Is that code common in professions or organizations other than MLB (and the Mafia)? https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/series/giving-voice-to-values], [See videos on incrementalism. Everybody knew it.” Indeed, many teams had complained to MLB’s executives about the Astros’ cheating.  Paul Grant, ‘I’m Handing Back My Medal’: Is Paralympic Sport Classification Fit for Purpose?, BBC.com, Sept. 18, 2017, at https://www.bbc.com/sport/disability-sport/41253174. Beatty also explains the common rationalization for banning books to Montag, explaining that smart people used to read books and therefore invite "tortures" from the other kids. Come on now! Examples of rationalization The possibilities of rationalization and acquiescence exist when self-reports of personal feelings are elicited by an interviewer or selfcompletion questionnaire. Did Rob Manfred take a deontological or a utilitarian approach to investigating and punishing the Astros?  James Moore, The Paralympics Cheating Scandal Proves that British Para-sport is a Victim of Its Own Success, The Independent, Oct. 31, 2017, at https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/paralympics-cheating-scandal-british-athletes-success-disabilities-classification-a8029866.html. And Astros players such as Carlos Correa, Jose Altuve, and Justin Verlander will probably have a better chance to enter the Hall of Fame than if they had been suspended for cheating. The coach who recruited the 2000 Spanish Paralympic basketball team has reportedly built a fortune by collecting state money aimed to support disabled athletes. Starting around June 2017, the system was embellished by Astros players. 2.  And, unsurprisingly, the Russians systematically cheat in the Paralympics just as they do in the traditional Olympics. "Telling the family about the error will only make them feel worse." But they have been criticized by fellow Para-athletes for causing a furor that threatens to tear the sport apart and thereby damage it irrevocably. Why do you think the Astros began using the “Dark Arts”? Common Rationalizations of Emotional Detachment By Michael Schreiner | July 26, 2018 When we understand that longstanding patterns of maladaptive behavior usually serve vital psychological and emotional functions despite their objectively destructive consequences we can understand the unconscious propensity to frame these maladaptive patterns as adaptive patterns. Swimmers tape their arms for days, removing the tape just before classification. A former major league pitcher, Mike Bolsinger, sued the Astros. According to Vikas Anand and his colleagues, common rationalizations include: “I know I shouldn’t have done that, but my boss made me so I didn’t have any choice.” Or, “Others have done worse.” Or, “That guy deserved to get ripped off.” Or, “If I hadn’t done it, someone else would have.”, Generally, rationalizations are most effective when they are not recognized as rationalizations. Some of sports’ most inspiring and heart-warming stories have come from the Special Olympics (for athletes with intellectual disabilities) and the Paralympics (for athletes with intellectual impairments and visual or physical disabilities).  International Paralympic Committee, November 2015 IPC Athlete Classification Code (2015). "It’s harmless." Now, the Houston Astros have joined this inglorious list. Burn it. Whether or not the increased visibility (and awareness) of Paralympic cheating changes the way these games are played in the future remains to be seen. 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