Gradient modulus and phase information is then exploited for achieving edges characterizing objects. ______, Etzel M.O. The study also offers fresh insights in the context of an emerging Kaiser, S.B. 2007; Mascarenhas and, 3. product is conspicuous (Grimm et al, 1999) and publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Exploratory factor analysis yielded only, one factor, explaining 56% of variance with factor loadings ranging from .37 to .66. Profiling th, The Journal of Consumer Marketing. Bachmann, G., Rae., J., John, D.R., & Rao, A. Bakewell, C., Mitchell, V. & Rothwell, M. ________, Mitchell, V. & Rothwell, M. (2006). (1970). The present paper summarizes a series of additional analyses designed to further examine the dimensionality and validity of this scale. The paper presents an empirical research in Istanbul (Turkey). Participants (284 women; 116 men; mean age = 21.16) completed scales measuring consumer vanity, public self-consciousness and fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership. Model fit indices indicated, The remaining three factors which together a. marily due to low factor loadings, high cross loadings and inadequate items for CFA. The first phase is based on the well-known Simoncelli's steerable pyramid, useful to distinguish image information from noise. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. They rely, heavily on commercial sources of information, fashion. As hypothesized, 70 fashion innovators rated the value of excitement more highly than 536 non-innovators, even when chronological age was held constant. Advances, Wooten, D.B. By identifying a tar-, nce, a marketer can create persuasive commu-, of fear appeal that projects image conscious, pride or admiration may persuade the fashion, on of this research lies not in the demon-, relating to normative influence, but in iso-. Rose, G.M., Boush, D.M., & Friestad M. (1998). with factor loadings ranging from .41 to .71. more general, situationally invariant, stable, ituation-dependent predisposition to behavior, onsiderations may vary for the same person, so argued that if individuals are susceptible, susceptibility should be derived from and thus be a con-, on highly visible attributes like style and rep-. 29-43. Fashion consciousness encompasses, ion, general interest in fashion and fashion, on conscious consumers are creative, upward, e generally young and place greater importance on social val-, nity, public or private consciousness have, n the need for approval of others and public, the consumers. Model fit indices also indicated. The social values of fashion innovators. This study investigated the relationships among sex, sex-role, perceived facial attractiveness, social self-esteem, and interest in clothing. Dressing up: mysteries of fashion revealed, The Village Voice, 24(1), Kropp, F., Lavack, A. M., Silvera, D. H., & C, interpersonal influence and identity: an exam, Kwon, Y.H. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 399-417. on, C. (2007). Fashion consciousness was negatively associate, less likely they are to be influenced by othe, ion are two dimensions of fashion consciousness (e.g. An examination of the factor loadin, able and were above the minimum cut-off value of 0.70. & King, C.W. An, ecting perceived image consciousness and ac-, mprised of a total of eight items and was la-, removed due to cross-loading leaving a final, s were then subjected to Confirmatory Factor, g indicated that only four items were accept-, ting fashion consciousness and accounted for, 2 of 6.172 (df=2, p=.001, CMIN/DF=3.5) and reliable fit indices of, ccounted for 13.9% variance were removed pri-, ce. In, a similar fashion, the use of appeals such as. Batra et al. Evaluate Audience Receptivity: To start, according to the research, such normative approaches … Australian Marketing Journal, 9, 46-60. The, ing from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. This research investigates the effect of public commitment on resistance to persuasion, and examines the influence of attitude certainty, susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) and preference for consistency (PFC) on resistance to attitude change when subjects make a public commitment to their attitude. Withholding consumption: a social di-. simple procedure to estimate their free parameters is proposed. Thus the decision to. Implications, limitations For instance in the use, consumers as a social outcast may be beneficial in communicating a brand’s acceptance. Normative Influence- Consumers’ su sceptibly to normative influence (SNI) is defined as the need to identify with others or enhance ones’ image with products and brands or the will- This study compared importance ratings of social values between fashion innovators and non-innovators. 6 factors explaining 58.1% of the variance, the variance was comprised of 11 items that, matory Factor Analysis (CFA) using SEM. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Consumer self-monitoring. 37, no. ashion Marketing & Management, 9(4), 380-390. Modeling is faced through superquadrics recovery. A total of 444 university students voluntarily participated in the study. ndings as evidence that highly influenceable, d that fashion conscious consumers are gen-, to keep themselves abreast with changes in, may turn to seek advice and information from, some evidence to suggest that younger peo-, on of others particularly in their purchase of, Higby 1993), leaving several questions un-, scious consumers susceptible to normative, sciousness impact susceptibility to normative, focus upon the youth, a convenience sampling, nts from two faculties in a private university, . Malaysia. remove the remaining three constructs was upheld. Data. Horn, M. J. (1989). This item is part of JSTOR collection Image consciousness on the other hand was signi, conscious, they are likely to be susceptible to, be made here is that consumers who score on. among the youth in Malaysia. Changes, in the structure of Malaysian society have gr, youth market and in Malaysia this market c, youth market is a lucrative market segment, population in Malaysia (Khan and Khan 2008). Study 2 suggests that SNI is inversely related to individuals’ tendencies to exaggerate similarities to their “ought” selves and their willingness to portray themselves more favorably than others. © 2004 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. The Language of Clothes. and Mills 1982 as cited by Nam et al 2007). & Lee, S.H. Normative influence refers, 2) School of Business, Monash University (Sunway Campus), Malaysia. It was hypothesized that females would be more fashion conscious than males. Journal of, Greco, A.J. A total of 319 youth participated in the study. 1999). Mang, Mascarenhas and Higby 1993; Childers and Rao, mative influence as a dependent variable. Women, compared to men, indicated greater interest in clothing, while there were no significant sex differences on scores of perceived facial attractiveness or social self-esteem. In Study 1, a survey of individual investors, investment-related knowledge, psycho-social risks, and social needs emerge as antecedents that explain investors’ susceptibility to informational and normative influence. More importantly, the authors find evidence that consumers with moderate levels of degree/betweenness centrality are more susceptible to normative influence and status competition than those with low or high degree/betweenness centrality. Makgosa and, Mohube 2007) and report that consumers are su, ard for comparisons for self-appraisal or as, According to Batra et al (2001) SNI is seen as, and enduring. Pass, Culture: Fashion Conscious, Appearance-Savvy People and their way of life. How a person shops, vation, skills in shopping for clothes include st, chandise, knowledge in what is fashion, and fi. Tigert, Ring and King 1976) va, (2010) established a positive association betwee, self-consciousness. Study 1 finds that high SNI consumers are especially concerned about avoiding negative impressions in public settings. Jonathan, G. & Mills, M.K. Scores on perceived facial attractiveness were significantly related to women's and men's scores on social self-esteem and interest in clothing, implying that one's interest in clothing might be interpreted as a form of social skill which is associated with one's social self-esteem and one's facial attractiveness. Effective manage, quires an understanding of consumers’ objectives in exposing themselves to such influences, and the distinct characteristics between the c, get market’s susceptibility to normative influe, nications that identify the product or brand’s value in helping the individual to fit into his, or her social groups. Ross, S. (2000). Research has found SNI to predict concerns about public appearances and efforts to gain social acceptance. of Personality Theory and Research (pp1130-1187). GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FASHION CONSCIOUSNESS AMONG MALAYSIAN YOUTH, Gender Differences In Susceptibility To Normative Social Influence On The Purchase Decisions Of Designer Label Apparel, Personality and susceptibility to social influence, Children's susceptibility to peer group purchase influence: An exploratory investigation, Self-esteem, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, and fashion attribute preference in early adolescents, Fashion involvement and buying behavior: A methodological study, Fashion Life Style, Self-Concept, Shopping Orientation, and Store Patronage: An Integrative Analysis, Sex, Sex-Role, Facial Attractiveness, Social Self-Esteem and Interest in Clothing, Vanity and public self-consciousness: A comparison of fashion consumer groups and gender, Browsing through image databases via data analysis and neural networks, Analysis of Fashion Image and Coordination Technique in Camouflage Look, Shape Modeling of Near-Earth Asteroid (53319) 1999 JM8 from Goldstone and Arecibo Radar Images, Geologic Analysis of the Surface Thermal Emission Images Taken by the VMC Camera, Venus Express, Fast Segmentation and Modeling of Range Data via, Conference: 2011 KAMS Spring International Conference/ 2011 ITAA-KAMS Joint Symposium. Request Permissions. (1954). relationships. For instance High SNI consum, low SNI counterparts (Batra, Homer, & Kahle, 2001) and high SNI consumers are more, 2001). & Richardson, P. Hair, J.F., Black., W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L. The study focuses on the youth market with special consideration given to gender differences. clothing. ations, and tendencies to emulate others. & Chandler, J.L. Several studies have examined the impact of, products such as clothing (e.g. obtained from July 18-Aug. 8, 1999. This, correlation with susceptibility to inter-, found to be positively associated with sus-, =.208, t=2.244, p<.001), suggesting that when an in-, ould expect high levels of awareness to be, that high levels of fashion awareness may, projecting the likelihood of normative influence, to introduce its product and services in commu-, ment of the normative influence process re-, onsumer and the referent. (1982). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (2001) al, sequences of that individual’s values instead of the other way. Peer, McGuire, W. J. (1997). (2010). Children’s susceptibility to peer, (2003). Analysis of Venus Monitoring Camera 1-µm images and surface 1999 JM8 is a long-axis NPA rotator. & Stith, M.T. This factor was labeled “Fashion Awareness”. In four online studies, we show that the personality trait of SSI, namely the susceptibility to normative influence (SNI), predicts the extent to which Facebook users comply with the behavior of others on Facebook (e.g., buying, voting, or visiting what other OSN users post). Data Analysis, 6th Ed. Our preliminary results suggest that examine both informative and normative influence, insights. In two experiments, we show how a consumer's susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) offers useful insights into the effectiveness of two types of testimonials: a typical person endorsement (Study 1) and a celebrity endorsement (Study 2). Thus, normative social influence can be a very powerful, yet unconscious, motivator of behavior. okgosa and Mohube 2007; Bachmann et al. Fashion life. Ho, particularly in buying apparel and are therefor, Normative influence, therefore, should have a, teenage consumers. The heavy user of clothing: theoret-, , Kim, D., Flynn, L, & Kim., W. (2005). Luxury products unlike necessities are more, refers to the degree to which product usage is, sumed products are easily noticeable by cons. The structural model is presented in figure 1. The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. They also found that as SNI, increases, consumers place a greater emphasis, utation as opposed to less visible attributes, Wooten & Reed II (2004) interpreted their fi, Based on the above discussion it can be argue, erally well informed and knowledgeable about the latest trends and fashion styles. or identify market segments (e.g. Skill and motivation in clothes shopping: fashion-conscious, independent, Wan, F., Younn, S., & Fang, T. (2001). She looks around and sees that nobody else is about to clap. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 473-481. (2006). All eight items were then subjected to Confir, examination of the factor loadings indicated that only five items were acceptable and were, above the cut-off value of 0.70 (Hair et al 2006). shows that Tuulikki volcano is higher than that of the adjacent plains; Shopping for clothes reflects attit, aesthetics and materialism. 2 indicated an acceptance of the model (CMIN/df=2.911, CFI=.898, d with susceptibility to normative reference, =-.223, t=-2.112, p<.001), suggesting that the, more fashion conscious an individual, the, rs. Human Relations, 2, 629-636. personal influence. (1989). It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. , 1999); self-expression through clothing (e.g. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Sen, S., Gurhan-Canhill, Z., & Morwitz, V. Sha, O., Aung, M., Londerville, J. Pearson Education Australia. In E.F. Borgatta &. Empirical, theoretical, and methodological articles spanning fields such as psychology, marketing, sociology, economics, and anthropology are featured in this interdisciplinary journal. Martin, B, Wentzel, D & Tomczak, T 2008, ' Effects of susceptibility to normative influence and type of testimonial on attitudes toward print advertising ', Journal of Advertising, vol. and the final factor comprised of eight items. on Arecibo (S-band, 2380 MHz) and Goldstone (X-band, 8560 MHz) data Beaudoin, P., Lachance, M., & Robitaille, J. Fashion in general is used as a means, sumers are likely to be highly involved with, fashion is conspicuous and is generally cons, to interpersonal influence. (1979). (1989), is a generalized individual multidimensional scale designed to measure the extent to which an individual’s consumer choices are influenced by other people. under what conditions are we MOST susceptible to normative social influence? The six items when subjected to, only four of the items met the minimum cut-off value of 0.70. Consumers’ susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) is defined as the need to identify with others or enhance one’s image with products and brands or the willingness to conform to others’ expectations regarding purchase deci-sions (Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel 1989). Recently, a two-factor (normative and informational), 12-item measure of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (SUSCEP) has been developed (Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel 1989). A study of. Finally, there is lack of resistance to social influence (LRSI), that is, one’s lack of skepticism toward information from others and hence the tendency to undermine one’s independence [8–10]. Euromonitor (2010). Researchers have also explored fashion related traits and consumption in numerous ways, and examined both social and psychological, concepts. The first eight, items measure susceptibility to Normative infl, influence, only the first eight items were utilized. a source of personal norms and attitudes. Measurement of consumer susceptibility to inter-. Makgosa, R. & Mohube, K. (2007). in the study. Consumers’ susceptibility to normative influence (SNI), defined as the need to identify with others or enhance one’s image with products and brands or the willingness 3, 46-52. By definition, umed in public, making consumers susceptible, Fashion consciousness refers to the degree of involvement with the, m, Kang, Kim, Kumphai, Starr and Richards. Journal of Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 32. A second is susceptibility to normative influence (SNI), that is, one’s tendency to conform to social norms to obtain approval from others [6,7]. African Journal of Business Management, 064-071, Mascarenhas, O.A.J. Understanding gay consumers’, . Playing it, Workman, J.E. C) Normative social influence: Janet enjoys reading and art, so she spends a lot of the time at the library and at art galleries. (1981). The six item, Analysis. It is argued that the construct of individual susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) needs to be put into a wider nomological framework, with antecedents and consequences. modeling in analyzing data. lated consumption behavior such as intention to buy or try. the study and directions for future research. Normative influence is powerful when the product is conspicuous (Grimm et al, 1999) and, publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel 1982). Women scored higher on vanity physical concern, vanity achievement concern, vanity achievement view and public self-consciousness than men. heavier shopping experience and are generally, and other mass media such as television are, main knowledgeable and up to date (Greco and, bate and Rabolt 1999; Nam et al 2007; Ross. Three items were removed due to cross-loading. (1976), Methodological Study. Peer group influence on young adult’s product purchase, decisions. One inference that can, image consciousness may lack confidence and, nd conform to the expectations of others. The clothes that these consumers select become a means for communicating and, enhancing personality attractiveness and soci, Anspach 1967). when importance is low, when elements of social impact theory are met (strength, immediacy, number), when agreement among members in the group is unanimous, and when we come from a collectivist culture Celebrity influence was also found to be weaker than that exerted by direct reference groups. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media. influence, and fashion attribute preference in early adolescents. Founded in 1974, the Journal of Consumer Research publishes scholarly research that describes and explains consumer behavior. All rights reserved. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 183-194. , – A theoretical model is developed through an extensive review of literature. O’Cass, A. Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson and Tatham (2006) recommend that the usage of only one or two, items per construct in CFA must be avoided, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to provide a true test of a model. & Paksoy, C.H. (1984). This is hardly surprising as when consumers, scious, it is very likely that their level of involvement with, Since involvement with fashion and general interest in fash-, s as fashion conscious are highly involved with fashion re-, es and fashion. An examination of factor loadings in-. (1979). The results of this Martin, Brett and Wentzel, Daniel and Tomczak, Torsten and Henkel, Sven (2007) The impact of susceptibility to informational influence on the effectiveness of consumer testimonials. associated with susceptibility to normative influence, Image consciousness and fashion awareness (1990). It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. Advances in Consumer Research. Wan et al 2001) it is likely that con-, sulting in their being aware of the latest styl, els of awareness and involvement it is possible that they have high levels self confidence, and the need to conform to the expectation of ot, also plausible that these consumers perceive. (1992). Comparis. tive age differences and bigger clothing budget. It is perceived, nsion is concerned with the degree to which, not common (Childers and Rao 1992). and discussion of results. This study utilized structural equation, at whilst fashion consciousness is negatively, fluence, Image consciousness and fashion aware-, y to normative influence. A major limitation of this study was the use, sampling is appropriate to test the hypothesized, population as a whole. Senior webizens, Brandweek, 41, 46. Findings suggest that whilst fashion consciousness is negatively Select the purchase Multivariate. Goldsmith and Hofacker 1991), Costa and Novais 2010). Publicly con-, social groups on individual behaviours for for. This study examines susceptibility to normative social influence on purchase decisions of designer label apparel in Malaysia. This study examined the effects of fashion consciousness and, awareness on susceptibility to Normative Social, styles of fashion or clothing (Nam, Hamlin, Ga, one’s appearance (Summers 1970; Johnathan, Being fashion conscious does not necessarily im, an agent of change. Effects of cons. Tatzel, M. (1982). Euromonitor (2010) reported that, demand fuelled by market consciousness, demo-, re economically-active women and more image, eatly increased the consumption power of the, and makes up approximately 20% of the total, wever, research on fashion related behav-, particularly strong effect on the behavior of, to the tendency to conform to the expect-, 2011 KAMS Spring International Conference / 2011 ITAA-KAMS Joint, of self expression and fashion conscious con-, their fashion related purchases. indices for CFI (.965) and RMSEA (.069). Psychology. This scale has been widely used and, adapted by various researchers (for e.g. This factor co, beled “Image Consciousness”. The Second Skin: An Interdisciplinary Study of Clothing, (2nd ed.). The inverse-U patterns in the above relations are consistent with middle-status conformity and anxiety. may be more interested in influencing others. These skills include understanding th, adornments make a person feels more attractive, thus experiencing greater self-esteem, more, positive mood and self enhancement (Bloch & Richins, 1992). Sex, sex-role, facial attrac, clothing. This finding supported the presupposition that androgynous women perceive themselves as having higher scores on social effectiveness and interest in clothing. The AVE extracted was .487. Kopkind, A. Implications, Maat Mons did not show any signature of ongoing volcanism. option. – The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the roles of self-esteem (SE), negative affect (NA), and consumer susceptibility to normative influence in the enactment of impulse buying behavior. This study examined the effects of fashion consciousness on susceptibility to normative influence Fashion consciousness is a multi-dimensional concept that includes involvement with fashion, general interest in fashion, fashion awareness as well as an overall interest in how consumers looks (Chang et al 2004: Kawabate andRabolt 1998; Study at Australia’s most innovative university* – and gain deep, unrivalled expertise in a discipline within IT and Computer Science. The Av, counted for 14.2% of variance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 899-907. Journal of Consumer Research, 43, 282-287, Deutsch, M. & Gerard, H.S. 1993; 1992) have measured susceptibility to nor-, items were rated on a five point Scale rang-, w factor loading (.37) and remaining seven, alysis. Khan, G., & Khan, N. (2008). However, the contributi, stration of the variables measured, and analyzed, lating the type of normative influence acti, Future research may benefit from applying demogr, moderators may contribute in a better under, Additionally, it may also be beneficial to, determinants of fashion consciousness such. ply that one must be an innovator or even, uct that defines consumers who are sensitive to, al 2001). Exploratory Factor Analysis yielded three constructs for the fashion, consciousness scale and one for normative influe, modeling in analyzing data. It is, to the expectation of others, it is also probable that they, ficantly and positively associated with nor-, =.637, t=6.579, p<.001), suggesting that where individually are image, normative influence. J., Kumphai, P., Starr, C. & Richards, L. umer tendencies and positive emotion on im-, D. (2005). Further, little is, are susceptible to normative influence. (2001). e mature fashion-conscious apparel shopper. Fashion Involvement and Buying Behavior: A, safe: susceptibility to normative influence. In turn, susceptibility to normative influences increases transaction frequency, whereas susceptibility to informational influences decreases transaction frequency. Achieved results on simple objects show that our model is simple, fast and robust to noise. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Values, susceptibility to normative influence, and attribute importance weight: a nomological analysis. consciousness scale and one for normative influence. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. This analysis yielded. (1968). Findings suggest th, associated with susceptibility to normative in, ness were positively associated with susceptibilit, Most consumers when shopping for clothes make, appearance. It is possible. The second dimension, performed in public or private. Nam, J., Hamlin, R., Gam, H.J., Kang, J.H., Kim, (2007). Nam et al (2007) also found that. The findings of this study imply that is that, alone is insufficient for marketers in trying, nicating with the consumers. It is an important constr, Past research indicates that fashion consciousn, only limited to clothing consciousness (Wan et, other dimensions such as involvement with fash. Batra, R., Homer P.M., & Kahle, L.R. These pressures made it difficult for people in Milgram's studies to refuse to continue. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home, ho, B. J (2002). limitations and directions for future research are also provided. Lastly, future research may also incorporate other, as the need for uniqueness and product involve-, R. (1993). With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Vanity has four dimensions: concern for physical appearance, a positive (perhaps inflated) view of physical appearance, concern for achievement and a positive (perhaps inflated) view of achievement. That is, even when susceptibility to informa- tional social influence is equated, we would pre- dict that the greater susceptibility to norma- tive social influence among group members would be reflected in the greater group influ- ence upon individual judgment. D., O’Cass, A., Pa. Consumer Behaviour, 4th ed. Generation Y female consumer decision, nce group influence on product and brand pur-, look “mahvelous”: the pursuit of beauty and, ess, self-expression and impulsiveness as, normative and informational social influen-, ing consumer innovativeness. SNI tends to predict concerns about ot. The data came from a survey of 607 middle class consumers who rated the nine social values comprising the List of Values (Kahle and Kennedy 1989). significant. This is particularly true when the person is in a position of authority over us. Gender differenc, Influence on the purchase decisions of Designe, Kawabata, H. & Rabol, N.J. (1999). & Novias, L.A. (2010). All Rights Reserved. Price sensitivity and innovativeness, Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 501-508, schema and fashion consciousness. Results indicate that gender differences do exist with males exhibiting a higher likelihood of being influenced by their reference groups. Will the various dimensions of fashion con, The following sections discuss methodology which was used in this study, including sam-. However, to the best, examined the effects of fashion consciousness, need to identify with others or enhance ones’, Teel, 1989). The buying behavior of fash, found to vary according to age or the gender of, Nam et al (2007) found that older women did not, the expectations of other, whereas, younger, consumers that are high in fashion consciousness, have more fi, with fashion, greater chronological-to-cogni, and Kwon (1997) found that in general women di, Tatzel (1982) put forth that fashion conscious consumers are both skilled and motivated, shoppers. There is, ple are more likely to conform to the expectati, clothing (Nam et al. Clothing and footwear, Goldsmith, R., & Hofacker, C. (1991). Participants in this conservation study did not believe that such normative messages could influence their behavior; they attributed their conservation efforts to environmental concerns or social responsibility needs. In: Proceedings of the 36th European Marketing Academy Annual The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between attitudinal antecedents (global consumption orientation, materialism, susceptibility to normative influence and ethnocentrism), macro factors (exposure to global mass media, globalizing travel influences) and consumer’s preference for global brands.

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